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I have collected San Franciscana for decades: books, stereoviews, and ephemera, much of it related to the 1906 earthquake and fire. Eventually I stumbled onto a few old postcards, one card led to another, and now I have a collection of several hundred cards, most over a century old. This page gives a brief illustrated introduction to my collection, roughly chronologically. It touches on U.S. postal history and includes a little postcard collector geekery, but it's primarily about local San Francisco history as embodied in these wonderful artifacts. As the sender of Livingston 105 (above left) wrote on 4/24/1900, "One cannot help but like this place—it has so many interesting things to see."

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This U.S. Postal Card postmarked S.F. 1/03/1887 is by far the oldest card in my collection. Postage was 1¢ for an offical Post Office card but 2¢ for a privately published card. Letter postage was also 2¢, so there was little motivation to use a private postcard rather than a letter. Only the address could be written on the address side of the card.



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The Private Mailing Card Act of 5/19/1898 fixed domestic postage for all postal cards at 1¢, making privately issued cards competitive with Post Office cards. The backs of cards were required to say "Private Mailing Card" and could only be used for the address, so the front layout usually included blank space for a message. San Francisco is the subject of this lighthearted S.F. Card 109 Private Mailing Card postmarked 3/27/1905, though the card was mailed from Portland OR to Chicago. Early Postcards shows more Private Mailing Cards.



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The government relaxed the "Private Mailing Card" restriction on 12/24/1901, allowing cards to use "Post Card" on the back instead, as seen in Goeggel & Weidner 8 above (postmarked 4/15/1903). San Francisco photographer Charles Weidner published hundreds of postcards, mostly on San Francisco subjects (see Weidner Numbered Postcards). Weidner's cards were printed in Germany, as German color lithography was far superior to American printing technology at the time. Weidner remained active as a photographer in San Francisco until the late 1930s. Weidner family contains biographical information about Weidner and his family.



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Some postcards in my collection predate the 4/18/1906 earthquake. Many show well-dressed people relaxing in picturesque surroundings, like Britton & Rey 449 and Britton & Rey 552 above (postmarked 4/07/1905 and 12/28/1905), both by local San Francisco lithographers Britton & Rey. Collecting "postals" was an extremely popular hobby in the first decade of the 20th Century, now called the Golden Age of Postcards. In the early years of the 20th century, the same image often appears on cards by different publishers; the Britton & Rey Ocean Beach image above is an altered version of Weidner 136 (comparison here).



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The 4/18/1906 earthquake and fire was big news, and postcard publishers rushed to capitalize on it. Local conditions were obviously difficult at best, but poorly printed b+w earthquake-related postcards appeared very quickly after the event. These three cards (Unknown publisher, Rieder-Cardinell, and Unknown publisher) were mailed within a month of the quake (all May 1906) with messages that describe the writer's personal experience. Earthquake/Fire: Eyewitnesses shows more cards sent by eyewitnesses soon after the event, including message transcriptions. The same image often appeared on cards from different publishers in the chaotic post-earthquake period, as seen here, here, and here.



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Hearst newspapers across the US included uncut sheets of crudely printed souvenir postcards with Sunday editions in May 1906. Very few were mailed, but people all over the country saved them, so they are still very common a century later. They haven't improved with age; they look terrible.



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The quality of b+w earthquake/fire cards varies substantially. Many were badly printed on poor quality stock, like Kendall 7 (left), while later cards like Behrendt 213 tended to be of better quality. Information printed on postcards was scanty and often incorrect; cards from the Souvenir Post Card Co. of NY were particularly inaccurate. Souvenir Post Card 4632 (center) adds an incorrect caption to the earlier Souvenir Post Card 4632 (the Ferry Building tower was damaged but not destroyed). In Souvenir Post Card 4630F (right), the ruined church is Emanu-El Synagogue, not St. Patrick's, and the photo looks south from Powell/Bush past Union Square, many blocks from Mission St. A San Francisco Call editorial of 05/20/1906 complained about disaster postals as "Pernicious advertising": "Are we not damaging the city with every one of these views we send away? ... Why not forget it as soon as possible and cease to keep the fire alive by fanning the dying embers?" In my collection, almost all cards mailed in the five months after the earthquake (5/07/1906 to 9/25/1906) are b+w, while only a very few cards mailed later are b+w (latest: 10/23/1910).



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Looking back from the 21st Century, it's tempting to think of Golden Age color postcards as photographs. Expermental color photography existed as early as the mid-19th Century, but Golden Age color postcards are usually offset lithographs based on b+w photos with color by the postcard artist (and sometimes also with significant modifications of the image, as in Mitchell 30). Weidner 211 (left) and Pacific Novelty 375 (right) are dramatically different color renderings of the same b+w photo. The "General view of ruined city" refugee photo above is taken later from the same location. Mint Hill 1906 shows more images from Mint Hill before, during, and after the fire.



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Better quality color postcards showing earthquake damage became available a few months after the earthquake. These postcards of the collapsed Valencia St. Hotel use the same b+w photo taken by M. Tanron on the morning of the earthquake, cropped and colored quite differently. Behrendt 238 (left, postmarked 4/10/1907) is of much lower print quality than Weidner 241 (right, postmarked 9/21/1908). Valencia St. Hotel gives more information about the hotel, including many other postcards.



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Starting on 3/01/1907, the Post Office allowed divided back postcards (message left, address right), freeing the entire front side for the image and ending the "undivided back" era. Weidner reissued many of his earlier cards with divided backs, usually changing the front layout slightly, as with Goeggel & Weidner 1 and Weidner 1 above. He often added earthquake-related captions to pre-earthquake images (e.g., Weidner 134).



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Earthquake-themed cards remained popular for years after 1906. Weidner 207 (left) and Weidner 205 (center) give dramatic depictions of the exodus from downtown on earthquake day 4/18/1906 as the fire grew. Cards were popular even outside of San Francisco; Weidner 205 was mailed from Indianapolis 11/13/1906. Weidner 218 (right) is postmarked 6/06/1910, four years after the quake.



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Don't trust your eyes... A postcard artist could manipulate color as noted above, but also could manipulate content, so images do not necessarily reflect reality. These cards are all based on the same post-earthquake Chinatown photo. In Weidner 596 (left, probably closest to the original photo), one man looks into a shop window at left; Unknown publisher 391 (center) shows two men rather than one at left (and a man at right who is cropped out in the Weidner); and Newman V324 (right, postmarked 7/14/1923) shows two different men at left. The Weidner card is by far the best of the three in print quality. The "Grant Avenue" caption of the Newman card is incorrect: the photo looks west on Washington Street from Washington Place ("Fish Alley", now Wentworth Place, just above Portsmouth Square), and several of the buildings still stand today (2019).



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Sutro Heights was a popular tourist destination, with pedestrian Palm Avenue leading from the entrance (Geary/48th Avenue) to the parapet overlooking Ocean Beach; these cards all look northeast toward the entrance. The left sides of Newman V163 (left) and Mitchell 44 (center) are the same image, but the right sides are completely different. I'm particularly fond of the photographer standing at his tripod in the Newman card. Palm Avenue looked like this in 2020.



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San Francisco recovered quickly from the 1906 disaster. The Portola Festival in 1909 celebrated the rebuilding of the city.



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Campaigning and publicity for the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition long predated the event. The Cardinell-Vincent card at left is postmarked 11/11/1910. The Mitchell card at right has a 10/16/1911 P.P.I.E. cancellation, though the exposition was then still more than four years in the future. Both cards display the offical exposition seal.



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Real photo postcards (RPPCs) are photographs printed directly onto postcard stock, as opposed to postcards produced by lithography or offset printing. The RPPCs at left are posed on the same "Frisco-Expo" train car set, presumably at the P.P.I.E. The subject often kept the postcard rather than mailing it; both of these cards have generic blank backs, like most RPPCs, providing no indication of publisher or date. Handwritten 1915 dates on the sightseeing tour cards at right (Unknown publisher 10/20/1915 and Unknown publisher 11/21/1915) suggest that these were probably excursions to the P.P.I.E.



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A giant Underwood typewriter and a Toledo Scales exhibit graced the Palace of Liberal Arts at the P.P.I.E.



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If you're wondering what might pour out of a giant P.P.I.E., cornucopia, Iowa supplies the obvious answer: corn.



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Expo visitors in 1915 could buy beautiful hand-colored souvenir postcards like these Weidner cards, printed by Albertype. Different examples of the same card show substantial color variation, as seen here.



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This lovely panorama of the Exposition is from the Pacific Novelty Co. folding postcard booklet Jewel City, mailed on 8/11/1915.



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The futuristic Golden Gate International Exposition took place on Treasure Island in 1939.



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The decoration of this gigantic G.G.I.E. fruitcake on Curteich 9A-H728 is amazing: the top shows Treasure Island at center with bridges connecting to Oakland/SF/Marin around the perimeter, and the lower level represents the buildings of the exposition. It's from the Soya and Lima Bean Bakery in Ojai, and the baker's name is Baker.



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I rarely buy postcards postdating the 1939 G.G.I.E., but sometimes I can't resist. Here's the Tonga Room on a Fairmont card postmarked 10/06/1951. The writer complains that she's lonesome being stuck in her room all day while her husband plays golf with his boss and co-workers. Upside: her hives are about gone and she got to eat dinner at the Tonga Room. Anthony Bourdain called the Tonga Room "the greatest place in the history of the world". Restaurants shows more restaurant postcards.



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I'll close with one of my favorite earthquake images, taken at the Stanford Quad. A passing professor remarked, "I always liked Agassiz better in the abstract than in the concrete." The statue survived, and after minor nose repair it now stands above the entrance to Jordan Hall.

Step through my other postcard pages with the Next links at the bottom of each page.



Steve's SF postcard pages:

Related pages (on my site):

About postcards (on the web):